Languages and DBT

The Different Ways Languages are Used in DBT

Duxbury DBT Win 12.7 sr3 contains support for the English language.

Translation Tables/Template Names in DBT (Win or Mac)

Duxbury DBT uses a system of supplied (or user installed) templates to select a braille translator. But the template can do more than just select a language translator. For most languages, there is only one template. For others there are more than one. For example, there are two templates for Mandarin Chinese, for the two most

Each translation table is used to produce a different form of braille. Duxbury DBT can produce braille needed for many different languages and nations. "Contracted" means there are abbreviations for certain letter combinations. "Uncontracted" means that all inkprint letter combinations are preserved in the braille.

Please note that there are actually two levels of language support for braille translation, a primary language, and a secondary language in the context of the first. For example, both "Spanish" entries in the European language list are designed for native speakers in countries where Spanish is the national language (primary language). If you are producing a textbook on Spanish to be used in the United States, however, the braille would be produced using the English UEB table, with Spanish chosen as a secondary language.

The Five World Regions

As you use Duxbury DBT, Templates are arranged by 5 world regions to make the lists manageable. If you want, you can list all the Templates in one long list.

Western Hemisphere

Western Hemisphere

Flag(s)DBT Template NameDBT Language CodeBraille-to-Print
Flag of Israel Flag of Greece Assyrian FlagBiblical original language studiesqbiYes
Flag of the United StatesEnglish/Americaneng-xnaYes
Flag of the United StatesEnglish/American Textbookeng-xnatYes
Flag of the United StatesEnglish/American Textbook (Distinct Emphasis)eng-xnateYes
Flag of Canada Flag of I.C.E.B. LogoEnglish/Unifiedeng-xuebYes
Flag of EsperantoEsperantoepoYes
Flag of CanadaFrench/Québec (pre-Unified)fra-xquYes
Flag of CanadaFrench (Unified)fra-xufYes
Flag of the United States Flag of GreeceGreek Classical (American)grc-aNo
Flag of GreenlandGreenlandic (Kalaallisut)kalYes
Haitian FlagHaitian Creole use Francais 2006 - integralfra-xufyes
Flag of the United StatesHebrew/Americanheb-usaNo
Paraguay FlagGuaranigrnYes
Laos FlagHmong (RPA)qhmYes
IPA logoIPA Phonetic SystemqipYes
Flag of BrazilPortugueseporYes
Bolivia FlagQuechuaqueYes
Assyrian FlagSemitic language transcriptionqakNo
Flag of Mexico Flag of ArgentinaSpanish/OriginalspaYes
Flag of Mexico Flag of ArgentinaSpanish/Reducidaspa-xreNo


Flag(s)DBT Template NameDBT Language CodeBraille-to-Print
Flag of AlbaniaAlbaniansqiYes
Spanish FlagBasqueeusYes
Flag of BelarusBelarusianbelYes
Flag of Bosnia and HerzegovinaBosnianbosYes
Flag of BulgariaBulgarianbulYes
Flag of AndoraCatalancatYes
Flag of RussiaChuvashchvYes
Flag of CroatiaCroatianhrvYes
Flag of WalesCymraeg (Welsh)cymNo
Flag of the Czech RepublicCzechcesYes
Flag of DenmarkDanishdanYes
Flag of the Netherlands Flag of BelgiumDutchnldYes
Flag of the EUEBU Pharmaceuticalqqp-ebuNo
Flag of the United KingdomEnglish/Britisheng-xukYes
Flag of the United KingdomEnglish/British (pre 2005 rules)eng-xuk00Yes
Flag of the United KingdomEnglish/Mooneng-xukmoonYes
Flag of the United Kingdom Flag of I.C.E.B. LogoEnglish/Unifiedeng-xuebYes
Flag of EsperantoEsperantoepoYes
Flag of EstoniaEstonianestYes
Faroese Islands FlagFaroesefaoYes
Flag of FinlandFinnishfinYes
Flag of France Flag of Belgium Flag of SwitzerlandFrench (pre-Unified)fra-fra00Yes
Flag of France Flag of Belgium Flag of SwitzerlandFrench (Unified)fra-xufYes
Flag of Germany Flag of Austria Flag of SwitzerlandGermandeuYes
Spanish FlagGalicianglgYes
Flag of Greece Flag of CyprusGreek (Modern)ellYes
Flag of HungaryHungarianhunYes
Flag of IcelandIcelandiciseYes
Flag of RussiaIngushinhYes
IPA logoIPA Phonetic SystemqipYes
Flag of the United KingdomIrish GaelicgleNo
Flag of Italy Flag of SwitzerlandItalianitaYes
Flag of RussiaKhakaskjhNo
Flag of Vatican CityLatinlatYes
Flag of LatviaLatvianlavYes
Flag of LithuaniaLithuanianlitYes
Flag of LuxembourgLuxembourgishltzYes
Flag of MacedoniaMacedonianmkdYes
Flag of MaltaMaltesemltYes
Flag of MontenegroMontenegrinsrp-mneYes
Flag of NorwayNorwegiannorYes
Flag of PolandPolishpolYes
Flag of PortugalPortugueseporYes
Flag of Romania Flag of MoldoviaRomanianronYes
Flag of RussiaRussianrusYes
Flag of SerbiaSerbiansrpYes
Flag of Slovak RepublicSlovakslkYes
Flag of SloveniaSlovenianslvYes
Flag of SpainSpanish/OriginalspaYes
Flag of Mexico Flag of SpainSpanish/Reducidaspa-xreNo
Flag of SwedenSwedishsweYes
Flag of RussiaTatartatYes
Flag of Turkey Flag of CyprusTurkishturYes
Flag of RussiaUdmurtudmYes
Flag of the UkraineUkrainianukrYes


Flag(s)DBT Template NameDBT Language CodeBraille-to-Print
Flag of Egypt Flag of United Arab EmiratesArabicaraYes
Flag of Egypt Flag of United Arab EmiratesArabic (pre-2002 rules)ara-x00No
Flag of ArmeniaArmenian, EasternhyeYes
Flag of ArmeniaArmenian, WesternqhyYes
Flag of IndiaAssameseasmYes
Flag of IndiaAwadhiawaYes
Flag of AzerbaijanAzerbaijaniazeYes
Flag of RussiaBashkirbakNo
Flag of BangladeshBengali (Bangla)/BangladeshbenYes
Flag of IndiaBengali (Bangla)/IndiabenYes
Flag of IndiaBhojpuribhoYes
Flag of MyanmarBurmesemyaYes
Flag of PhilippinesCebuanocebYes
Flag of China Flag of SingaporeChinese/MandarincmnNo
Flag of China Flag of SingaporeChinese/Mandarin with tonescmnYes
Flag of ChinaChinese/Yue (Cantonese)yueYes
Flag of BangladeshChittagonianctgYes
Flag of AfghanistanDariprsYes
Flag of the MaldivesDhivehidivNo
Flag of BhutanDzongkhadzoYes
Flag of EsperantoEsperantoepoYes
Flag of IranianFarsi (Persian)fasYes
Flag of PhilippinesFilipinofilYes
Flag of GeorgianGeorgiankatYes
Flag of IndiaGujuratigujYes
Flag of IndiaHaryanvibgcYes
Flag of IsraelHebrew/Israeliheb-isrYes
Flag of the PhilippinesHiligaynonhilYes
Flag of IndiaHindihinYes
Laos FlagHmong (RPA)qhmYes
Flag of PhilippinesIlokoiloYes
IPA logoIPA Phonetic SystemqipYes
Flag of IndonesiaIndonesianindYes
Flag of JapanJapanese (Kana)jpnYes
Flag of IndonesiaJavanesejavYes
Flag of IndiaKannadakanYes
Flag of KazakhstanKazakhkazYes
Flag of CambodianKhmer (Cambodian)khmYes
Flag of IndiaKirghizkirYes
Flag of South Korea Flag of North KoreaKoreankorYes
Flag of Iraq Flag of Turkey Flag of Iran Flag of KurdishKurdishkurYes
Flag of IndiaKurukhkurYes
Flag of LaosLaolaoYes
China FlagLisulisYes
Flag of IndiaMagahimagYes
Flag of IndiaMaithilimaiYes
Flag of MalaysiaMalaymsaYes
Flag of IndiaMalayalammalYes
Indonesia FlagMaduresemadYes
Flag of IndiaMarathimarYes
Flag of IndiaMeitei (Manipuri)mniYes
Flag of MongoliaMongolianmonYes
Flag of NepalNepalinepYes
Flag of IndiaOriyaoriYes
Flag of India Flag of PakistanPanjabipanYes
Flag of Pakistan Flag of AfghanistanPashtopusYes
Flag of RussiaRussianrusYes
Flag of IndiaSadrisckYes
Flag of IndiaSanskritsanYes
Flag of IndiaSantalisatYes
Flag of IndiaSindhisndYes
Flag of India Flag of Sri LankanSinhalasinYes
Indonesia FlagSundanesesunYes
Flag of IndiaSylhetisylYes
Flag of the PhilippinesTagalogtglYes
Flag of TajikistanTajiktgkYes
Flag of India Flag of Sri LankanTamiltamYes
Flag of IndiaTelugutelYes
Flag of ThailandThaithaYes
Flag of ChinaTibetanbodYes
Flag of TurkeyTurkishturYes
Flag of TurkmenistanTurkmentukYes
Flag of IndiaUrdu/Indiaurd-indYes
Flag of PakistanUrdu/Pakistanurd-pakYes
Flag of UzbekistanUzbekuzbYes
Flag of VietnamVietnamesevieYes


Flag(s)DBT Template NameDBT Language CodeBraille-to-Print
Flag of South AfricaAfrikaansafrYes
Flag of South AfricaAfrikaans (pre-Unified)afr-x00No
Flag of EthiopiaAmharicamhYes
Flag of Egypt Flag of United Arab EmiratesArabicaraYes
Flag of Egypt Flag of United Arab EmiratesArabic (pre-2002 rules)ara-x02No
Malawi FlagChewa (a.k.a., Nyanja)nyaYes
Flag of South AfricaEnglish/South African (pre-Unified)eng-zaf00Yes
Flag of South Africa Flag of I.C.E.B. LogoEnglish/Unifiedeng-xuebYes
Flag of EsperantoEsperantoepoYes
Flag of Ghana Flag of TogoÉwéeweNo
Guinea FlagFulah (a.k.a., Fula)fulYes
Flag of Nigeria Flag of NigerHausahauYes
IPA logoIPA Phonetic SystemqipYes
Flag of NigeriaIgboiboYes
Flag of BotswanaZimbabwe FlagKalangakckYes
Flag or AngolaKikongokonYes
Rwanda FlagKinyarwandakinYes
Burundi FlagKirundirunYes
Congo FlagKitubaktuYes
Uganda FlagLeb-LangolajYes
Congo FlagLuba-KasailuaYes
Flag of MadagascarMalagasymlgYes
Flag of South Africa Flag of ZimbabweNdebelendeYes
Flag of South AfricaNguniqngYes
Ethiopia FlagOromoormYes
Flag of ZimbabweShonasnaYes
Flag of SomaliaSomalisomYes
Flag of South AfricaSotho (Southern or Northern (Pedi))sotYes
Flag of Kenya Flag of TanzaniaSwahiliswaYes
Flag of South Africa Flag of SwazilandSwatisswYes
Flag of EthiopianTigrinyatigYes
Zimbabwe FlagTongatoiYes
Flag of Mozambique Flag of South Africa Flag of SwazilandTsongatsoYes
Flag of South AfricaTswanatsnYes
Flag or AngolaUmbunduumbYes
Flag of NigeriaWest African languagesqafYes
Flag of South AfricaVendavenYes
Flag of South AfricaXhosaxhoYes
Flag of NigeriaYorubayorYes
Flag of South AfricaZuluzulYes


Flag(s)DBT Template NameDBT Language CodeBraille-to-Print
Flag of AustraliaEnglish/Australian (pre-Unified)eng-aus00Yes
Flag of Australia Flag of I.C.E.B. LogoEnglish/Unifiedeng-xuebYes
Flag of EsperantoEsperantoepoYes
IPA logoIPA Phonetic SystemqipYes

Secondary Languages within English UEB

Each primary language table has some secondary languages which can be used with it. The secondary languages listed below are available while the English UEB table is in use. Use the secondary language to translate passages of the foreign language within English text. The English text (the primary language) is translated using the regular English UEB rules.

FlagLanguage3 or 2 character lng code
Flag of GermanyGermandeu (de)
Flag of HawaiiHawaiianhaw
Flag of ItalyItalianita (it)
Flag of Vatican CityLatinlat (la)
New Zealand FlagMaorimao (mi)
Flag of SpainSpanishesp (es)

Information about secondary languages available in other tables can be found by pressing the F1 Help key when reviewing the Translation Table menu (found in the DBT Document Menu). Here is the direct link to information on secondary languages within English UEB.

The Language of the User Interface in the DBT Program

The Language of the User Interface means the language of the menus, prompts, and error messages when one uses Duxbury DBT. When DBT first boots up, it uses the Regional setting in the Control Panel to decide what User Interface Language to start in. After that, you can change the User Interface Language in DBT's Global, Internationalization menu. There are 15 choices.

Flag of the ChinaChinese
Flag of the Czech RepublicCzech
Flag of DenmarkDanish
Flag of the NetherlandsDutch
Flag of the United States Flag of Canada Flag of the United KingdomFlag of AustraliaEnglish
Flag of France Flag of Belgium Flag of SwitzerlandFrench
Flag of Germany Flag of Austria Flag of SwitzerlandGerman
Flag of Italy Flag of SwitzerlandItalian
Flag of South Korean Flag of North KoreanKorean
Flag of NorwayNorwegian
Flag of PolandPolish
Flag of Portugal Flag of BrazilPortuguese
Flag of RussiaRussian
Flag of Spain Flag of MexicoSpanish
Flag of SwedenSwedish

The Language for the Help File in DBT

Using Google translate, DBT allows you to read the DBT Help files in over 135 different languages. While machine translation is not ideal, it can give you the answers you need. Link to the Internet Edition of the DBT Help.

The Braille Font Used

When DBT displays braille dot patterns on the screen, the way this is done is usually not an issue to a user. But if the user is blind, and is using software like JAWS to drive a braille device to follow the screen, then the user very much wants the braille on the screen to match the braille on the braille display. This is only possible if the braille font the DBT uses matches the association between ASCII characters and braille cells used on the braille display.

DBT sends ASCII characters to drive different braille devices. Different devices and/or different regions use different systems to associate braille characters with ASCII characters. This is an area that is quite technical, and frustrating if it is not set up properly. However, virtually all braille devices made can work with the North American system, which is the default. Or the user can select another system in the Global, Internationalization menu.

DBT uses a file called display.cpt to link braille symbols with ASCII characters. To solve problems that cannot be handled using the existing choices, this table can be edited. Users who successfully modify this table for additional braille devices are request to email it to Duxbury systems so that others can also have access to additional braille device set-ups.

The System of Braille Formatting

Duxbury DBT contains a sophisticated and powerful suite of braille formatting commands derived from the requirements of BANA, UKAAF, French, and other braille formats. Duxbury Systems is working to make sure that its features meet the needs of braille around the world. No matter what braille system you work in, we believe there is a way to use DBT's commands to produce your desired format. If you have concerns that you do not think are being addressed in DBT, please contact Duxbury Systems. If possible, please, supply the relevant braille codebook (pdf or Word file) to assist us in understanding your concerns.

The Duxbury Systems Website Presented in 135 Languages

Thanks to Google Translate, this website can be viewed in many different languages.
Read this web site in another language (the first 3 flags give more choices):
Languages of India translation Languages of Nigeria translation Languages of South Africa translation Albanian translation Akan translation Amharic translation Arabic translation Armenian translation Azerbaijani translation Belarusian translation Bengali translation Bosnian translation Bulgarian translation Chichewa translation Chinese (Simplified) translation Chinese (Traditional) translation Croatian translation Czech translation Danish translation Dhivehi translation Dutch translation Estonian translation Ewe translation Filipino translation Finnish translation French translation Georgian translation German translation Greek translation Haitian Creole translation Hebrew translation Hungarian translation Icelandic translation Indonesian translation Italian translation Japanese translation Kazakh translation Khmer (Cambodian) translation Kinyarwanda translation Korean translation Krio translation Kyrgyz translation Laothian translation Latvian translation Lithuanian translation Luganda translation Luxembourgish translation Macedonian translation Malagasy translation Malay translation Maltese translation Mongolian translation Montenegrin translation Myanmar (Burmese) translation Nepali translation Norwegian (Bookmal) translation Pashto translation Persian translation Polish translation Portuguese (Brazil) translation Portuguese (Portugal) translation Romanian translation Russian translation Samoan translation Serbian translation Sesotho translation Shona translation Sinhalese translation Slovak translation Slovenian translation Somali translation Spanish translation Spanish (Latin American) translation Swahili translation Swedish translation Tajik translation Thai translation Tigrinya translation Turkish translation Turkmen translation Ukrainian translation Urdu translation Uzbek translation Vietnamese translation
Click here for additional minority languages from around the world

Duxbury Reaches Out to Meet Braille Needs Around the World

In the fall of 2013, an article written by Duxbury Staff came out in the publication The Educator (see page 52 of the pdf). You can also see a recent revision of this article.

This article describes the many ways that Duxbury Systems reaches out to help produce a braille translator in a new language. We have also enhanced many of our braille translators. Any translation project mentioned in the 2013 article as tentative has long since been finished and is part of each shipping copy of DBT.

The article in The Educator points out the number of ways that users around the world can work with Duxbury Staff to improve Duxbury DBT. Contact us at:

Copyright Duxbury Systems, Inc. Thursday, December 7, 2023

Duxbury Systems, Inc. website