Russian Flag of Russia

There is only one template for Russian: Russian - basic.

For the details about the DBT translator used by Russian: click here.

Uncontracted Braille

Russian is usually produced in uncontracted braille. This means that words in the text are produced in braille on a one-for-one basis: one braille character for each inkprint letter. Some inkprint punctuation may require more than one braille character. Indicating upper case, emphasis, or numbers adds additional braille characters to the character count, but there are no abbreviations or contractions.

If you have questions about how braille is produced, please contact a member of the relevant braille authority.

Non-Roman Script

Russian is written in a script other than the Roman alphabet. This can result in problems when importing files into DBT. Your best option is to import files from Microsoft Word or Open Office that are written in a Unicode font. You can contact support at Duxbury Systems if you have a file which does not import properly into DBT. Please send the file which does not import (the original inkprint file), not a screen shot of DBT.

Please contact us if you have any concerns.

Math Issues in Russian

DBT is starting to support the Russian braille code for mathematics, approved in the 1970's. To use this translator, the math material needs to be using the DBT style math. This happens automatically with the import of LaTeX files and some other formats.

Russian Braille Formatting Rules

Russian braille authorities released new rules in 2015. DBT reflects changes in braille translation based on these rule changes.

The new rules for braille formatting are much more difficult. These rules imply deeply human decisions about the intention of the author and other aspects of the book that are not easily computerized. Duxbury Systems will continue to work to make the production of braille easier for those who wish to follow the most exacting rules.