Kazahk - Translator Table Kazakhstan Flag

Table Designator: kaz

A translation table is a module in DBT that provides the rules to convert (translate) a document from print-to-braille or from braille-to-print. Normally, it is selected by the DBT template that controls production of the current document. All documents have a template. In fact, for many languages there are multiple templates, with differences in translation rules or formatting, but each references at least one translation table. (For more on templates, see DBT Templates, the Basics.)

Regardless of your template, you can choose a different translation table to translate your current document using the Translation Table selection from the DBT Document Menu.

You can also select different translation tables to use for particular passages in your document. See the section below on Language Table Switching.


The Kazakh Uncontracted tables support print-to-braille translation of Kazakh-language literary text written in the Cyrillic alphabet. They are intended primarily for use in conjunction with Microsoft Word, or equivalent external facilities for composing and editing the print text that can then be imported into the Duxbury Braille Translator (DBT) for conversion into braille.

English text may also be processed as a sub-language, and converted to contracted or uncontracted English braille (generally following British conventions). French, Bulgarian, Russian and Ukrainian may also be processed as sub-languages.

Translation from braille-to-print is supported for this language.

Key Characteristics

Table Designator: kaz identifies this translation table for Language Table Switching.

Braille Contractions: This language is usually produced in uncontracted braille. This means that the letters of each word are rendered into braille on a one-for-one basis.

Capital Sign: Kazakh uses dots 45 as the capital sign.

Emphasis: The Kazakh translator converts all forms of emphasis in inkprint (bold, italics, and underlining) to a single braille emphasis marker, dots 456.

Hyphenation: Automatic hyphenation of the braille (that is, automatic introduction of assisted-hyphenation codes during the translation to braille) is supported by default, though it can be turned on and off by translation codes.

Handling Commas: By default, Kazakh braille removes spaces after commas. This behavior of the translator can be controlled by DBT codes.

Mathematical Braille: If you use the recommended DBT template with this translator table, you can access the Russian Braille mathematics translator using the math style.

Script Systems Used: The Kazakh translator handles the Cyrillic alphabet. These are the characters U+0400-04FF. The Kazakh translator also handles text using Arabic and Roman characters, plus a wide variety of symbols and punctuation marks.

Sister Tables

The Kazakh translator works with Cyrillic languages. All of the Cyrillic alphabets in use are very similar. They are either identical to the Russian alphabet or have only minor variations from it.

Some of the Cyrillic languages supported by Duxbury are spoken in separate nations, such as Ukrainian. Others are spoken as significant minority languages in regions of Russia, such as Udmurt.

Translation Modes (DBT Codes which Change the Mode of Translation)

A number of DBT codes affect the mode of the translation or create special translation effects on specific letters or symbols. Some translation modes are specific to particular translator tables.

[ahy] or [ahy1] turns on automatic hyphenation of the braille (which is the initial and default condition).

[ahy0] turns off automatic hyphenation of the braille.

[vrn~spc] preserves spaces following commas and semicolons, which by default are removed in Kazakh braille.

[vrn] cancels [vrn~spc], returning to the normal mode, which suppresses any space that follows a comma or semicolon.

For more about DBT codes that affect the mode of translation, search on the two words, "Translation Code", in the topic, DBT Codes Quick Reference.

Language Table Switching

DBT has translation tables for over 200 world languages. Modern versions of DBT allow using multiple language translation tables within a single document.

Suppose that you are working on a document using this base translation table, but it has passages in a foreign language, or that need a technical braille code. At the beginning of each such passage, insert the DBT code lnb, followed by ~ (tilde) and the table designator for the desired language table. (The table designator for each language table is listed in the Key Characteristics.) Note that using the lnb code you can change from the base table to virtually any other translation table and back again.

For some language tables, the table designator is short, like ise for Icelandic. Thus, to switch to Icelandic braille translation, insert [lnb~ise]. The table designators are more elaborate for mathematics code tables and for languages that have multiple translation tables. As an example, the designator for Unified French Braille is fra-xuf. To start a passage in the French Unified Braille code, insert [lnb~fra-xuf]. At the end of a foreign language passage, use the plain [lnb] code to switch back to the original, base, language translation table.

Some translation tables, and hence their table designators, are for braille codes but not for natural languages. Some examples are the International Phonetic Alphabet (designator: qip) and Nemeth Code (designator: qmt-xnem72m) for mathematics. Using lnb with those table designators allows you to switch to the IPA braille code or the Nemeth braille math code.

While a plain [lnb] code returns translation to the base language, it does not restore any other translation properties that might have been in effect before the switch. For example, if you had been using a [g1L] code (for "grade 1 lock") to prevent contractions, you need to repeat that code after the [lnb] code to restore that effect. Fortunately, you can build lnb codes into DBT styles, to customize what modes to enter and exit at the switch in and out of a translation table.

Note that DBT templates whose names contain the word "basic" all have a number of styles defined for switching between different translation tables. (For the list, see Basic Templates.)

Notice that if you include Roman alphabet characters in a document but do not use a language style or code to switch to a different translation table, you will get uncontracted English with the same marks of punctuation, emphasis, and capitalization used for the base language.

References, History, and Credits

These tables were based originally upon the information in World Braille Usage, a joint publication of UNESCO and the National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped, Washington, D.C. (1990). Duxbury Systems received multiple refinements since the inception of this project.

Duxbury originally developed these tables in June 2000. We are indebted to Oleg Shevkun and J. H. Fernandez Garza for more recent information that has been used in their improvement and maintenance.

Updates and Errors

If you have information about changes in the braille rules for your language, please email Duxbury so that we may update our translation tables. Likewise, if you find errors in your translated document, in either the print-to-braille or braille-to-print direction, please contact us. To describe your problem, it is best to send both the *.dxp and *.dxb files along with a full explanation, because the correct braille is often a matter of very specific circumstances. Contact Duxbury at: languages@duxsys.com.