English UEB - UK Formatting Flag of the United Kingdom

This DBT template is designed to produce material meeting UK formatting standards. The legacy template is designed to produce material in a way that is consistent with older DBT software. It follows the UEB translation rules and adheres to older, obsolete formatting standards. You can make either template your default selection. Detailed documentation for English UEB UK formatting is available below.

Click here for instructions on using alternative methods for foreign language text transcription.

Click here for more help on the DBT translator used by all of the English (UEB) templates

Multiple Templates for English

The English language has multiple DBT Templates.

Unified English Braille (UEB) is the standard in all English speaking countries. Accordingly, all the "English (UEB)" templates employ the same UEB braille translator. They may differ with respect to math translation and especially with respect to formatting. Therefore, different UEB templates may contain different DBT styles, and the effects of those styles may differ. The UEB templates use UEB math translation unless the template name specifies Nemeth.

Using the English UEB UK formatting DBT Template

Author's Note: This is the best draft of this document at the software production deadline.

The English (UEB) UK Formatting template is designed to produce braille using the layout conventions in the UK. For more information, please see the UEB Presentation Guidelines available from www.ukaaf.org/braille, or the RNIB Braillists' Manual, available from RNIB, product code: TC21451 - https://shop.rnib.org.uk

Below are some details of the main styles, followed by a complete alphabetical list of styles in the template.

It's worth noting that some styles have equivalent codes you could use directly. For example, NewPageNext is equivalent to the [top] code. The styles are provided for convenience and to help when importing from Microsoft Word.

Note that there is no specific Word template to use with this Duxbury DBT template, Standard Word styles will map to the equivalent Duxbury styles automatically, but you may have to create some styles in Word (e.g. for French, German etc) in order to automatically import certain text.

The Main Styles

Here are some details of the main styles used in this DBT template.


For ordinary paragraphs of text, use the <para.> style. We call this kind of paragraph a "C3-1" paragraph, meaning the first line is indented to cell 3 and subsequent lines start at the margin (cell 1).

If you interrupt a paragraph and need to continue running text with no indent, use the <para.continue.> style.

For indented block quotes, use the <quote.> style.

All these styles go round an entire paragraph.


<para.>The recipe did not say how much salt to add.</para.>


Use the styles <h1.>, <h2.>, … <h9.> for headings in your document.

<h1.> is for a centered, main heading, <h2.> for a side (sub-) heading, and so on.

The heading styles also record the heading so you can generate a Table of Contents if needed. For more information on Tables of Contents, see Layout → Generate Table of Contents.

The <Centered.> style can be used to center other text – it does not get added to a table of contents.



<para.>In this book …</para.>

<h2.>Before you start<.h2.>

<para.>You will need …</para.>

Running Headers

Use the <RunningHead> style to add a header line at the top of each braille page. This can often be done immediately after a main heading.

In longer documents, at the start of main text, or the beginning of an appendix, it is customary to begin a new page and start on line 3, without a running header on that page. This can be done with the <MainBody.> style.



<centered.>Your Guide</centered.>


<h1.>Chapter 1</h1.>

<RunningHead>Your Guide. 1</RunningHead>

<para.>Welcome to …</para.>

Text Breaks

All of the following styles should be kept empty.

At the end of main sections and in various other places, in the UK it is customary to add a "colons end marker" in the braille. This can be done with the <colons.> style. Don't put any text within the style.

Subsections and ends of tables can be marked with a <dot2s.> style and three centered asterisks can be produced with the <TextBreak.> style.

For material in a box, use the <BoxBegin.> style at the top and the <BoxEnd.> style at the bottom.

You can start a new page with the <NewPageNext.>, <NewPageOdd.> or <NewPageEven.> styles. These move to the top of a new page, a new odd page or a new even page, respectively.

Should you need to force a line break within a paragraph of text, use the <SoftReturn> style. This is useful to prevent a line break occurring in the wrong place.

The <continuation> style produces a dot 5 "continuation indicator" for example to mark the continuation of a long electronic address split over more than one line.


<para.>… and that was the end of the story.</para.>




UEB includes signs for bold, italic, underlined and many other kinds of specially written text. You can use styles <bold>, <italic>, <script> and <underline> to add these signs in your document.

Note: an overuse of these signs may be unhelpful to the reader, so use them only as needed for emphasis, not for text decoration. For example, these signs are generally not used in headings.

When importing a document from Microsoft Word, there are options whether to include bold, italics and so on, see General → Word Importer.

Maths and Technical

For mathematical expressions, use the <math> style to enclose the portion of mathematics. This can be used within a paragraph for in-line expressions.

<math-TextInMath> can be used for any text within a mathematical expression.

To show a displayed (set out) equation, use the <DisplayedMaterial.> style. Note <math> is still needed for the actual mathematical content.

The <chemistry> style is used around chemical formulae: it capitalises individual letters, rather than using capital word indicators.

A study of further codes used in mathematics is beyond the scope of this document.


<para.>Remember the following equation:</para.>

<DisplayedMaterial.><math>A = [fs]1[fl]2[fe]bh</math></DisplayedMaterial.>


Method 2 of the UKAAF guidelines for foreign languages should be used when producing material in other languages for educational purposes in the UK. The <French>, <German>, <Italian>, <Portuguese> and <Spanish> styles can be used to do this.

There are also styles for Latin, Welsh and text written in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA).


<para.><French>Bonjour, je m'appelle Stéphanie.</French></para.>

Line Numbering

Use the <LineNum> style around each line number and enclose the entire section of prose or poetry in the <LineNums> style.



<para.>… and only if the stars <LineNum>40</LineNum>shine down brightly will they …


Complete List of Styles

Following is an alphabetical listing of all of the styles in the template, with a brief description of each.

Each style is marked as either:

acronym char: Indicate the next word in grade 1 mode, an acronym. Used for acronyms such as US, IT etc. Do not use for CD, SD, as the grade 1 indicator will be removed.

AlphabeticDivision char: used in an index for the centered letter headings.

attribution. para: for the right aligned attribution at the end of a quotation, preface, dedication etc.

BlockProtect char: Prevents a block of text being split over a page break.

BlockProtectLevel char: Prevents a block of text being split over a page break, but allow breaks at bullet points and forced new lines e.g. in a bulleted list.

bold char: Typeforms for bold text.

BoxBegin. empty: The top edge of a box for boxed material.

BoxEnd. empty: The bottom edge of a box for boxed material.

BrlInline char: Direct braille (no translation), inline with the running text.

CapBreak empty: Break the run of a capitalised passage, for separately capitalised items in otherwise continuous block caps.

CapTgr char: Treat items which would normally be treated as separately capitalised, as a single capitalised passage.

centered. para: Center general text.

CenteredFullLine. para: Center general text, and use the entire line width.

chemistry char: Capitalise like chemistry (use individual capitals).

colons. empty: Produce a "colons" end marker, used at the end of major sections, end of contents, on title pages and end of volumes.

CompDisplay. para: for set out (displayed) computer material.

CompInline char: show computer code inline with the text. Note rarely needed in UEB.

contents. para: Layout like table of contents.

continuation empty: Produce a dot 5 line continuation indicator and starts a new line.

DisplayedMaterial. para: for C5-7 displayed (set out) material such as equations.

dot-2-line. empty: Produce a full width "dot 2's" end marker, as an alternative to dot 2's, used more rarely as needed.

dot2s. empty: Produce a "dot 2's" end marker, used as needed at the end of tables, subsections etc.

EndnoteEmbed char: collects an end note from text for later display on code [kdtxp~endnote]

footnote. para: The text of a footnote, formatted C1-3.

FootnoteEmbed char: collects a footnote from the running text for later display on code [kdtxp~footnote]

French char: French text using "method 2".

G1Passage char: switches to grade one and inserts the UEB grade 1 passage indicators.

German char: German text using "method 2"

glossary. para: for glossary entries, formatted C1-3.

group char: Group words together so they cannot be separated by a line break.

GuideDots empty: Produce dot 5 guide dots and right align the next word (or group of words).

GuideDotsVol empty: Produce dots 36 guide dots and right align the next word (or group of words).

h1. para: Level 1 heading (main heading). Text is centered and registered for a table of contents.

h2. para: Level 2 heading: C1-5 with blank line above. Text is registered for a table of contents.

h3. para: Level 3 heading: C3-1 paragraph with italics. Registers text for a table of contents.

h4. h5. h6. h7. h8. h9. para: Level 4-9 heading: effectively ordinary paragraph. Registers text for a table of contents.

index. para: Layout like an index.

initial empty: Special style to apply codes automatically into the start of the document to set things up. e.g. sets the style for print page indicators, decimal alignment character etc.

IPA char: International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) braille (no indicator).

Italian char: Italian braille, method 2.

italic char: The italics typeforms.

Latin char: Text in Latin, method 2.

LeftFlush. para: Produce C1-1 paragraph, everything blocked at the margin.

LineNum char: a line number in line numbered text. Add this around each line number in a passage of line numbered text.

LineNums char: a section of line numbered text. Add this around the whole of the line numbered section.

list. para: a numbered or bulleted list.

MainBody. empty: Mark the start of main text: starts text on line 3 and suppress running header (except page numbers) on the first page.

math char: A mathematical expression, inline with text.

math-TextInMath char: for ordinary text within a mathematical expression.

NewPageEven. empty: Begin a new page, skip to even page.

NewPageNext. empty: Begin a new page.

NewPageOdd. empty: Begin a new page, skip to odd number page.

NoNumberSign char: Suppress numeric indicators.

para. para: An ordinary C3-1 paragraph of text.

para.continue. para: Continuation of an ordinary paragraph (e.g. after displayed material mid sentence), i.e. no indent.

poem. para: Line by line poetry, new verse at cell 3, new line at cell 1 and runovers at cell 5.

Portuguese char: Portuguese language using method 2.

quote. para: A C7-5 quoted paragraph.

RefPageNumber char: print reference page number (print page indicator). Use outside a paragraph style if between paragraphs.

RightFlush. para: Right align text.

RunningHead char: Set the text for a page running header.

script char: Typeforms for script text.

SoftReturn empty: Force a new line within a paragraph.

Spanish char: Spanish language text in method 2.

TextBreak. empty:: produce a centered line of three asterisks.

TranscriberNote char: produce the signs for a transcriber note inline with text.

uncontracted char: Uncontracted (grade 1) braille.

underline char: Typeforms for underlined text.

Welsh char: Welsh language text.

The Style Map for this template is uk-basic.mws (setting: word:mws = uk-basic).

Math Issues in English

The rules of UEB Math allow some flexibility with respect to spacing around signs of comparison, like the equals sign, and signs of operation, like the plus or minus signs. Most users of UEB do use spaces around signs of comparison. Signs of operation are usually not spaced, though some braille jurisdictions choose otherwise, as required, to meet the educational needs of their readers. The UEB translator does not automatically add spaces for either situation. However, in Global Settings - Import Options, you will find a checkbox for adding spaces around signs of comparison when importing files with math. This option applies both for importing Word documents with MathType and for importing LaTeX files.

Contracted Braille

This language is usually produced in contracted braille. This means that words are not produced in braille on a one-for-one basis: there are abbreviations (contractions) in the text. If you have questions about producing correct braille, please contact a member of your local braille authority.

Producing this language in uncontracted braille is also quite easy in DBT. Before translation into braille, place the cursor at the top of the document and use the Grade 1 command (Alt+1). When the document is translated, the braille will be uncontracted.

Sample Microsoft Word File

Click here for a sample Word file in this language.

Click here for instructions and the complete list of language sample files in Word format.

E-mail languages@duxsys.com with your suggestions on improving DBT braille translators, or to request a translator for a new language.

E-mail support@duxsys.com for software support issues related to Duxbury DBT.

Click here to select a different DBT template.