EBU Pharmaceutical Braille
Table Designator: qqp-ebu
A translation table is a module in DBT that provides the rules to convert (translate) a document from print-to-braille or from braille-to-print. Normally, it is selected by the DBT template that controls production of the current document. All documents have a template. In fact, for many languages there are multiple templates, with differences in translation rules or formatting, but each references at least one translation table. (For more on templates, see DBT Templates, the Basics.)
Regardless of your template, you can choose a different translation table to translate your current document using the Translation Table selection from the DBT Document Menu.
You can also select different translation tables to use for particular passages in your document. See the section below on Language Table Switching.
The European Blind Union (EBU) Pharmaceutical tables support translation of (a limited range of) text into braille for display on pharmaceutical packaging, according to the specifications of the European Blind Union, as published in October 2005.
Translation from braille-to-print is supported for this language.
Table Designator: qqp-ebu identifies this translation table for Language Table Switching.
Braille Contractions: This language is usually produced in uncontracted braille. This means that the letters of each word are rendered into braille on a one-for-one basis.
Capital Sign: EBU Pharmaceutical uses dots 46 as the capital sign.
Script Systems Used: The EBU Pharmaceutical translator handles Roman letters, plus a limited number of other characters found on drug packaging.
The EBU Pharmaceutical specifications provide only for characters normally found in the labels of pharmaceuticals. Certain characters commonly found in ordinary literary text, such as the exclamation mark, are not included in these specifications and so are not supported. Characters not in the specifications generally translate as the word "error", between braille parentheses, appearing at the corresponding position in the braille label output.
Translation Modes (DBT Codes which Change the Mode of Translation)
A number of DBT codes affect the mode of the translation or create special translation effects on specific letters or symbols. Some translation modes are specific to particular translator tables.
There are no special translator modes for this table, only those which are present for all tables, such as the [lnb~] code (language-switch) and a few codes for internal testing.
For more about DBT codes that affect the mode of translation, search on the two words, "translation code", in the topic, DBT Codes Quick Reference.
Language Table Switching
DBT has translation tables for over 200 world languages. Modern versions of DBT allow using multiple language translation tables within a single document.
Suppose that you are working on a document using this base translation table, but it has passages in a foreign language, or that need a technical braille code. At the beginning of each such passage, insert the DBT code lnb, followed by ~ (tilde) and the table designator for the desired language table. (The table designator for each language table is listed in the Key Characteristics.) Note that using the lnb code you can change from the base table to virtually any other translation table and back again.
For some language tables, the table designator is short, like ise for Icelandic. Thus, to switch to Icelandic braille translation, insert [lnb~ise]. The table designators are more elaborate for mathematics code tables and for languages that have multiple translation tables. As an example, the designator for Unified French Braille is fra-xuf. To start a passage in the French Unified Braille code, insert [lnb~fra-xuf]. At the end of a foreign language passage, use the plain [lnb] code to switch back to the original, base, language translation table.
Some translation tables, and hence their table designators, are for braille codes but not for natural languages. Some examples are the International Phonetic Alphabet (designator: qip) and Nemeth Code (designator: qmt-xnem72m) for mathematics. Using lnb with those table designators allows you to switch to the IPA braille code or the Nemeth braille math code.
While a plain [lnb] code returns translation to the base language, it does not restore any other translation properties that might have been in effect before the switch. For example, if you had been using a [g1L] code (for "grade 1 lock") to prevent contractions, you need to repeat that code after the [lnb] code to restore that effect. Fortunately, you can build lnb codes into DBT styles, to customize what modes to enter and exit at the switch in and out of a translation table.
Note that DBT templates whose names contain the word "basic" all have a number of styles defined for switching between different translation tables. (For the list, see Basic Templates.)
References, History, and Credits
The EBU pharmaceutical specifications published in the "Basic Chart of Braille Signs," was developed by the European Blind Union in October 2005, and subsequently published at http://www.mhra.gov.uk.
The earliest support for EBU Pharmaceutical braille was created as a variant mode of the English/British tables, in September 2007. Duxbury Systems developed a separate table in February 2008, based upon the published sources mentioned above, and with technical advice from George Bell of Techno-Vision Systems Ltd., in the U.K.
Updates and Errors
If you have information about changes in the braille rules for your language, please email Duxbury so that we may update our translation tables. Likewise, if you find errors in your translated document, in either the print-to-braille or braille-to-print direction, please contact us. To describe your problem, it is best to send both the *.dxp and *.dxb files along with a full explanation, because the correct braille is often a matter of very specific circumstances. Contact Duxbury at: email@example.com.