Semitic - Translator Table Flag of Biblical

Table Designator: qak

A translation table is a module in DBT that provides the rules to convert (translate) a document from print-to-braille or from braille-to-print. Normally, it is selected by the DBT template that controls production of the current document. All documents have a template. In fact, for many languages there are multiple templates, with differences in translation rules or formatting, but each references at least one translation table. (For more on templates, see DBT Templates, the Basics.)

Regardless of your template, you can choose a different translation table to translate your current document using the Translation Table selection from the DBT Document Menu.

You can also select different translation tables to use for particular passages in your document. See the section below on Language Table Switching.


The centerpiece of the Semitic Languages table is handling the Romanization of Semitic languages, including incorporation of the diacritical marks used to indicate pronunciation. This facilitates handling Cuneiform-based languages, such as: Akkadian, Eblaite, Elamite, Hattic, Hittite, Hurrian, Luwian, Sumerian, Urartian, Old Persian, Ugaritic, Old Babylonian, and Ancient Egyptian.

Translation from braille-to-print is supported for this language.

Key Characteristics

Table Designator:qak identifies this translation table for Language Table Switching.

Capital Sign: Semitic uses dot 6 as the capital sign.

Emphasis: The Semitic translator converts all forms of emphasis in inkprint (bold, italics, and underlining) to a single braille emphasis marker, dots 456.

Mathematical Braille: You can access the UEB braille mathematics translator by using the math style.

Script Systems Used: The Semitic Languages translator handles many alphabets and scripts, as follow:

Sister Tables

This table is a close relation to the Biblical Original Language Studies table.

Accent Marks (Diacritical Marks)

This translation table uses a large number of diacritical marks ("accent" marks) to indicate pronunciation for each language in the braille output. Each accent mark is listed below, along with the dots that make up the braille cell configuration, and the appearance of the braille cells in the SimBraille font.

All accents are placed before the base character they modify.

Semitic Language Characters

The Semitic Language Transcription table is based on the Biblical Original Language Studies table, but is expressly designed to handle the various script systems used in the source text to transcribe a number of Semitic Languages into braille as (accented) Roman letters.

This table is largely in alphabetical order according to the base letter.

Character Hex Name Braille
U+0061+0301 a with acute 2a
á U+00E1 a with acute 2a
U+0061+0302 a with circumflex ;a
â U+00E2 a with circumflex ;a
U+0061+0300 a with grave 3a
à U+00E0 a with grave 3a
U+1EA3 a with hook above \a
U+0061+0304 a with macron ^a
ā U+0101 a with macron ^a
U+1e01 a with ring below >
U+0063+0306 c with breve (c
č U+010d c with caron .c
č̣ U+0063+030c+0323 c with caron and dot below ."c
č̣ U+010d+0323 c with caron and dot below ."c
U+1E0d d with dot below "d
U+1E0f d with line below _d
U+0065+0301 e with acute 2e
é U+00e9 e with acute 2e
U+0065+0302 e with circumflex ;e
ê U+00Ea e with circumflex ;e
U+0065+0300 e with grave 3e
è U+00E8 e with grave 3e
U+0065+0304 e with macron ^e
ē U+0113 e with macron ^e
ǧ U+01E7 g with caron .g
ĝ U+011D g with circumflex ;g
ġ U+0121 g with dot above @g
U+0068+032c h with breve below 7h
U+1E2B h with breve below 7h
U+0068+032f h with inverted breve below "7h
U+0068+032d h with circumflex below ;h
U+1E29 h with circumflex below ;h
U+0068+0323 h with dot below "h
U+1E25 h with dot below "h
U+1E96 h with line below _h
ı U+0131 i which is dotless 9
U+0069+0301 i with acute 2i
í U+00Ed i with acute 2i
U+0069+0302 i with circumflex ;i
î U+00EE i with circumflex ;i
U+0069+0300 i with grave 3i
ì U+00Ec i with grave 3i
U+1EC9 i with hook above \i
U+0069+0304 i with macron ^i
ī U+012b i with macron ^i
U+006b+0323 k with dot below "k
U+1E33 k with dot below "k
U+1e47 n with dot below "n
U+006f+0301 o with acute 2o
ó U+00F3 o with acute 2o
U+006f+0302 o with circumflex ;o
ô U+00F4 o with circumflex ;o
U+006f+0300 o with grave 3o
ò U+00F2 o with grave 3o
U+006f+0304 o with macron ^o
ō U+014D o with macron ^o
ś U+015b s with acute 2s
U+0073+0306 s with breve (s
š U+0161 s with caron %
U+0073+0323 s with dot below !
U+1E63 s with dot below !
U+0073+0300 s with grave 3s
U+0074+0323 t with dot below ?
U+1E6D t with dot below ?
U+1E6F t with line below _t
U+0075+0301 u with acute 2u
ú U+00Fa u with acute 2u
U+0075+0302 u with circumflex ;u
û U+00FB u with circumflex ;u
U+1ee5 u with dot below "u
U+0075+0300 u with grave 3u
ù U+00F9 u with grave 3u
U+1EE7 u with hook above \u
U+0075+0304 u with macron ^u
ū U+016B u with macron ^u
U+1e8f y with dot above @y
U+1E93 z with dot below "z
̄ U+0304 combining macron ^
̀ U+0300 combining grave accent 3
́ U+0301 combining acute accent 2
̂ U+0302 combining circumflex accent ;
ʾ U+02be right half ring ;5
ʿ U+02bf left half ring ;9

Translation Modes (DBT Codes which Change the Mode of Translation)

A number of DBT codes affect the mode of the translation or create special translation effects on specific letters or symbols. Some translation modes are specific to particular translator tables.

There are no special translator modes for this table, only those which are present for all tables, such as the [lnb~] code (language-switch) and a few codes for internal testing.

For more about DBT codes that affect the mode of translation, search on the two words, "translation code", in the topic, DBT Codes Quick Reference.

Language Table Switching

For the languages described above, no language table switching is needed to go from script to script. This single table handles them all.

References, History, and Credits

The earliest versions of this table were created in 2017 by adapting the Biblical Languages table to handle the transcription of Semitic languages into braille as accented Roman letters. This is all the work of the committee alphabetically listed below.

Development continues on this table. Those wishing to participate should contact