Table Designator: qak
A translation table is a module in DBT that provides the rules to convert (translate) a document from print-to-braille or from braille-to-print. Normally, it is selected by the DBT template that controls production of the current document. All documents have a template. In fact, for many languages there are multiple templates, with differences in translation rules or formatting, but each references at least one translation table. (For more on templates, see DBT Templates, the Basics.)
Regardless of your template, you can choose a different translation table to translate your current document using the Translation Table selection from the DBT Document Menu.
You can also select different translation tables to use for particular passages in your document. See the section below on Language Table Switching.
The Semitic Language Transcription tables support print-to-braille translation of Hebrew, Greek, Syriac, Coptic, and Arabic languages, as well as English, European languages, and Russian, in a manner designed to support the needs of braille-reading biblical scholars. The centerpiece of the Semitic table is handling the diacritical marks used to show the pronunciation of the Semitic languages.
Translation from braille-to-print is supported for this language.
Table Designator:qak identifies this translation table for Language Table Switching.
Braille Contractions: This language is usually produced in contracted braille, which means one should not expect a one-to-one correspondence between inkprint letters and braille cells. Instead, abbreviations (contractions) are used for many common words and letter sequences.
Capital Sign: Semitic uses dots 46 as the capital sign.
Emphasis: The Semitic translator converts all forms of emphasis in inkprint (bold, italics, and underlining) to a single braille emphasis marker, dots 456.
Mathematical Braille: You can access the UEB braille mathematics translator by using the math style.
Script Systems Used: The Semitic Languages translator handles many alphabets and scripts, as follow:
- Various European languages with accent marks
This table is a close relation to the Biblical Original Language Studies table.
Accent Marks (Diacritical Marks)
This translation table uses a large number of diacritical marks ("accent" marks) to indicate pronunciation for each language in the braille output. Each accent mark is listed below, along with the dots that make up the braille cell configuration, and the appearance of the braille cell(s) in the SimBraille font.
- Acute - is dots 23 2
- Breve - is dots 12356 (
- Breve Below - is dots 2356 7
- Breve Below, inverted - is dot 5, dots 2356 "7
- Caron - is dots 46 .
- Circumflex - is dots 56 ;
- Dot Above - is dot 4 @
- Dot Below - is dot 5 "
- Grave - is dots 25 3
- Hook Above - is dots 1256 \
- Line Below - is dots 456 _
- Macron - is dots 45 ^
All accents are placed before the base character they modify.
Semitic Language Characters
The Semitic Language Transcription table is based on the Biblical Original Language Studies table, but is expressly designed to handle the various script systems used in the source text to transcribe a number of Semitic Languages into braille as (accented) Roman letters.
This table is largely in alphabetical order according to the base letter.
|à||U+00E0||a with grave||3a|
|á||U+0061+0301||a with acute||2a|
|á||U+00E1||a with acute||2a|
|â||U+0061+0302||a with circumflex||;a|
|â||U+00E2||a with circumflex||;a|
|à||U+0061+0300||a with grave||3a|
|ả||U+1EA3||a with hook above||\a|
|ā||U+0061+0304||a with macron||^a|
|ā||U+0101||a with macron||^a|
|ḁ||U+1e01||a with ring below||>|
|c̆||U+0063+0306||c with breve||(c|
|č||U+010d||c with caron||.c|
|č̣||U+0063+030c+0323||c with caron and dot below||."c|
|č̣||U+010d+0323||c with caron and dot below||."c|
|ḏ||U+1E0f||d with line below||_d|
|ḍ||U+1E0d||d with dot below||"d|
|é||U+0065+0301||e with acute||2e|
|é||U+00e9||e with acute||2e|
|ê||U+0065+0302||e with circumflex||;e|
|ê||U+00Ea||e with circumflex||;e|
|è||U+0065+0300||e with grave||3e|
|è||U+00E8||e with grave||3e|
|ē||U+0065+0304||e with macron||^e|
|ē||U+0113||e with macron||^e|
|ǧ||U+01E7||g with caron||.g|
|ĝ||U+011D||g with circumflex||;g|
|ġ||U+0121||g with dot above||@g|
|ḫ||U+1E2B||h with breve below||7h|
|h̬||U+0068+032c||h with breve below||7h|
|h̯||U+0068+032f||h with inverted breve below||"7h|
|h̭||U+0068+032d||h with circumflex below||;h|
|ḩ||U+1E29||h with circumflex below||;h|
|ḥ||U+0068+0323||h with dot below||"h|
|ḥ||U+1E25||h with dot below||"h|
|ẖ||U+1E96||h with line below||_h|
|ı||U+0131||i which is dotless||9|
|í||U+0069+0301||i with acute||2i|
|í||U+00Ed||i with acute||2i|
|î||U+0069+0302||i with circumflex||;i|
|î||U+00EE||i with circumflex||;i|
|ì||U+0069+0300||i with grave||3i|
|ì||U+00Ec||i with grave||3i|
|ỉ||U+1EC9||i with hook above||\i|
|ī||U+0069+0304||i with macron||^i|
|ī||U+012b||i with macron||^i|
|ḳ||U+006b+0323||k with dot below||"k|
|ḳ||U+1E33||k with dot below||"k|
|ṇ||U+1e47||n with dot below||"n|
|ó||U+006f+0301||o with acute||2o|
|ó||U+00F3||o with acute||2o|
|ô||U+006f+0302||o with circumflex||;o|
|ô||U+00F4||o with circumflex||;o|
|ò||U+006f+0300||o with grave||3o|
|ò||U+00F2||o with grave||3o|
|ō||U+006f+0304||o with macron||^o|
|ō||U+014D||o with macron||^o|
|ś||U+015b||s with acute||2s|
|s̆||U+0073+0306||s with breve||(s|
|š||U+0161||s with caron||%|
|s̀||U+0073+0300||s with grave||3s|
|ṣ||U+0073+0323||s with dot below||!|
|ṣ||U+1E63||s with dot below||!|
|ṭ||U+1E6D||t with dot below||?|
|ṭ||U+0074+0323||t with dot below||?|
|ṯ||U+1E6F||t with line below||_t|
|ú||U+0075+0301||u with acute||2u|
|ú||U+00Fa||u with acute||2u|
|û||U+0075+0302||u with circumflex||;u|
|û||U+00FB||u with circumflex||;u|
|ù||U+0075+0300||u with grave||3u|
|ù||U+00F9||u with grave||3u|
|ủ||U+1EE7||u with hook above||\u|
|ū||U+0075+0304||u with macron||^u|
|ū||U+016B||u with macron||^u|
|ụ||U+1ee5||u with dot below||"u|
|ẏ||U+1e8f||y with dot above||@y|
|ẓ||U+1E93||z with dot below||"z|
|̀||U+0300||combining grave accent||3|
|́||U+0301||combining acute accent||2|
|̂||U+0302||combining circumflex accent||;|
|ʾ||U+02be||right half ring||;5|
|ʿ||U+02bf||left half ring||;9|
Translation Modes (DBT Codes which Change the Mode of Translation)
A number of DBT codes affect the mode of the translation or create special translation effects on specific letters or symbols. Some translation modes are specific to particular translator tables.
There are no special translator modes for this table, only those which are present for all tables, such as the [lnb~] code (language-switch) and a few codes for internal testing.
For more about DBT codes that affect the mode of translation, search on the two words, "translation code", in the topic, DBT Codes Quick Reference.
Language Table Switching
For the languages described above, no language table switching is needed to go from script to script. This single table handles them all.
You can find the general explanation of Language Table Switching, the DBT lnb code and relevant details, in most of the language table topics, such as the English (UEB) Translator.
References, History, and Credits
The earliest versions of this table were created in 2017 by adapting the Biblical Languages table to handle the transcription of Semitic languages into braille as accented Roman letters. This is all the work of the committee (alphabetically listed) below.
- Sarah Blake LaRose (Blind Biblical Scholar)
- Eric Harvey (Blind Biblical Scholar)
- David Holladay (Duxbury Systems)
- Ray McAllister (Blind Biblical Scholar)
- Caryn Navy (Duxbury Systems)
- Matthew Yeater (Blind Biblical Scholar)
Development continues on this table. Those wishing to participate should contact firstname.lastname@example.org.