SPANISH (Original) Flag of Spain

Table Designator


This is the technical description of a DBT Translation table. If you want more general information about languages and template choices, please see the list of templates.

Initially, the language table for braille translation is determined by the selected template, and may be changed using the Document / Translation Tables menu. Using those menus does not require use of the table designator. However, to switch to a different translation table partway through a file, one must enter a DBT code and the designator for the table to switch to. For switching secondary languages within a base language table, see the [lng~X] command. For switching from one base language to another, see the [lnb~...] command.

Functional Summary

The Spanish/Original tables support print-to-braille translation of Spanish-language literary text in grade 1 (uncontracted) or grade 2 (contracted) Spanish braille. The contraction system is the original one defined to Duxbury Systems, and is still in use by some Spanish readers.

Special Requirements and Limitations

True braille-to-print translation is supported only within any grade 1 Spanish passages, not in grade 2. This means that it is not generally useful to translate the Spanish braille file to print unless it is all in grade 1. It also means that the "translated line" will typically contain gibberish when viewing any contracted portions of the braille file -you may prefer to turn off the "translated line" under the View menu, or even under Global/Default if you wish it to be off by default.

Secondary Languages Supported

No secondary languages are supported.

While no "secondary languages" are supported within the Spanish table itself, it is possible to switch to any of the available translation tables listed in DBT. (See the [lnb~...] code below.)

Technical Braille Codes Supported

No technical codes are supported.

However, it is possible to switch to any of the available translation tables listed in DBT (see the [lnb~...]code below), many of which do support various technical codes, such as for mathematics or computer notation, or which support “unified” treatment of technical notation as well as literary text in the base language associated with the table.

Supported DBT Translation Codes

The following DBT translation codes are available when using the Spanish table.Any other translation codes used will be ignored, or indeed may cause unexpected results.If using an alternative translation table, i.e.when switching to another base language table by means of the [lnb~...] code, please refer to the relevant topic and available codes for that table.

[/] may be embedded within letter-groups that would normally be contracted, to prevent the contraction.

[ab] is equivalent to [g2]







[g1] switches to "grade 1" (uncontracted) braille.

[g1l] switches to "grade 1" (uncontracted) braille and "locks" that setting.

[g1u] undoes the "locking" effect of a prior [g1l], while leaving the contraction grade as "grade 1" (uncontracted) braille.

[g2] switches to "grade 2" (contracted) braille (which is the normal mode for this table).

[g2l] switches to "grade 2" (contracted) braille and "locks" that setting.

[g2u] undoes the "locking" effect of a prior [g2l], while leaving the contraction grade as "grade 2" (contracted) braille.

[in] is equivalent to [g1]


[lnb~...] (for switching to another base [primary] language table)

[lng...] -- ignored.

Characters Supported

The table is designed to work with the following groups of characters:

All ASCII printable characters

Accented characters and punctuation marks typical of Spanish.

The above is a general guide only (see "General Notes" section at the beginning of this document).

References, History and Credits

These were the first DBT tables for a contracted braille system for a language other than English. They were developed by Duxbury Systems, Inc. from December 1976, based upon a specification prepared by Mr. Carl Rodgers (nee Carlos Rodriguez), a native speaker of Spanish who at that time worked for the American Foundation for the Blind. The contraction system was later verified (with some updating) by Mr. Pedro Zurita of the Organizacion Nacional de Ciegos Espanoles (ONCE), Madrid. The tables are currently maintained by Duxbury Systems with feedback from Mr. Zurita, ONCE and occasionally other sources, and using "Codigo Matematico Unificado para la Lengua Castellana 1987" as a source for some symbols.

(Documentation reviewed: July 2010.)