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Table Designator


This is the technical description of a DBT Translation table. If you want more general information about languages and template choices, please see the list of templates.

Initially, the language table for braille translation is determined by the selected template, and may be changed using the Document / Translation Tables menu. Using those menus does not require use of the table designator. However, to switch to a different translation table partway through a file, one must enter a DBT code and the designator for the table to switch to. For switching secondary languages within a base language table, see the [lng~X] command. For switching from one base language to another, see the [lnb~...] command.

Functional Summary

The Hausa tables support print-to-braille translation of Hausa-language literary text in grade 2 (contracted) or grade 1 (uncontracted) braille.

Braille to Print (Back-translation)

Braille-to-print translation is supported for this language. However, braille-to-print translation may not be perfect, therefore beware that errors can occur. If you find errors or have suggestions, please send both the *.dxb and *.dxp files along with an explanation to: Please be sure to include sample files!

Special Requirements and Limitations

There are no special requirements or limitations.

Secondary Languages Supported

While no "secondary languages" are supported within the Hausa table itself, it is possible to switch to any of the available translation tables listed in DBT. (See the [lnb~...] code below.)

Technical Braille Codes Supported

No technical codes are supported.

However, it is possible to switch to any of the available translation tables listed in DBT (see the [lnb~...]code below), many of which do support various technical codes, such as for mathematics or computer notation, or which support “unified” treatment of technical notation as well as literary text in the base language associated with the table.

Supported DBT Translation Codes

The following DBT translation codes are available when using the Hausa table.Any other translation codes used will be ignored, or indeed may cause unexpected results.If using an alternative translation table, i.e.when switching to another base language table by means of the [lnb~...] code, please refer to the relevant topic and available codes for that table.

[/] -- ignored

[ab] is equivalent to [g2]








[g1] switches to "grade 1" (uncontracted) braille.

[g2] switches to "grade 2" (contracted) braille, which is the normal mode for this table.

[ii] switches to grade 1 (uncontracted) braille for one word only.

[ii] switches to grade 1 (uncontracted) braille for one word only, and inserts a grade 1 indicator (dot 6).

[in] is equivalent to [g1]


[lnb~...] (for switching to another base [primary] language table)

[lng...] -- ignored.


Characters Supported

The table is designed to work with the following groups of characters:

All ASCII printable characters

Accented characters and punctuation marks typical of Hausa, French, German, Latin, Spanish, Portuguese, and Finnish. Although Hausa letters are basically from the Roman alphabet, the vowels may be marked according to high, middle or low tone using an acute accent, macron, or grave accent respectively. (The mid tone is not normally marked explicitly, but may be in some circumstances.) Likewise some letters (b, d, k and y) may be "hooked". Any available precomposed Unicode characters may be used for these marked or hooked letters (such as U+00e9 "e with acute accent (high tone)" or U+0199 "k with hook" or U+01b4 "y with hook"). Alternatively, the markings or hooks may be added to the ordinary letter by entering the applicable "combining" Unicode marks immediately after the basic letter. These combining marks are: U+0300 for combining grave accent (low tone), U+0301 for combining acute accent (high tone), U+0304 for combining macron, and U+0303 ("combining tilde") to add a hook. (Note that U+0309, "combining hook above," is not used for this purpose because the "hook" produced by that method is too far above and the resulting combined character does not look like the desired Hausa character.) In all instances any combining mark should follow the basic letter that it is modifying.

British pound sign (£)

The above is a general guide only (see "General Notes" section at the beginning of this document).

References, History and Credits

These tables are based upon the information given to Duxbury Systems for Hausa by Mrs. Jean Obi. (Note: Pending further decisions regarding the representation of the hooked letters b, d and k, they are translated as the basic letter preceded by dot 4, following a suggestion by Mrs. Obi.)

The tables were originally developed beginning in May 2005 by Duxbury Systems, Inc.

(Documentation reviewed: July 2010.)