This is the technical description of a DBT Translation table. If you want more general information about languages and template choices, please see the list of templates.
Initially, the language table for braille translation is determined by the selected template, and may be changed using the Document / Translation Tables menu. Using those menus does not require use of the table designator. However, to switch to a different translation table partway through a file, one must enter a DBT code and the designator for the table to switch to. For switching secondary languages within a base language table, see the [lng~X] command. For switching from one base language to another, see the [lnb~...] command.
The English/British tables support print-to-braille translation of English-language literary text, following the codes and customs established by the Braille Authority of the United Kingdom (BAUK), as revised 2004-2005. Several other languages may also be processed as sub-languages, and transcribed in accordance with BAUK practice. Technical codes for math and science (BAUK Math Code) and computer notation (BAUK's Braille Computer Notation [BCN]) are also supported.
Braille-to-print translation is supported for this language. However, braille-to-print translation may not be perfect, therefore beware that errors can occur. If you find errors or have suggestions, please send both the *.dxb and *.dxp files along with an explanation to: firstname.lastname@example.org. Please be sure to include sample files!
True braille-to-print translation is supported within English text and Computer Braille Code, but not in languages other than English nor in mathematics. This means that any mathematics or foreign-language portions of a braille file will not translate correctly to print. It also means that the "translated line" will typically contain gibberish when the cursor is in mathematics or embedded foreign-language braille.
Several other languages may be entered and treated as "in English context," using the [lng...] code to switch. For instance, [lng~fr] (or [lng~fra]) would introduce a French passage, which would be terminated, i.e.reverting to English, at [lng] (or [lng~en] or [lng~eng]). The available languages, together with their associated "lng" codes, are:
de (or deu) -- German
en (or eng) -- English
es (or esp) -- Spanish
fr (or fra) -- French
it (or ita) -- Italian
la (or lat) -- Latin
pt -- Portuguese
In German and French secondary language text, contractions as specified by BAUK will normally be used, as long as grade two is in effect. (Those contractions include some but not all of the contractions that would be used in the regular contracted braille for those languages.) The other languages are all transcribed in grade 1 regardless of the grade setting. That is, the [g1] and [g2] codes affect the English text and any German or French text, but not the other languages.
Note that in addition to the above-listed "secondary languages" supported within the English/British table itself, it is also possible to switch to any of the available translation tables listed in DBT. (See the [lnb~...] code below.)
The BAUK math and science code and the BAUK computer notation code, i.e.BCN, are supported.
In addition, it is possible to switch to any of the available translation tables listed in DBT (see the [lnb~...]code below), many of which do support various technical codes, such as for mathematics or computer notation, or which support “unified” treatment of technical notation as well as literary text in the base language associated with the table.
The following DBT translation codes are available when using the English/British table.Any other translation codes used will be ignored, or indeed may cause unexpected results.If using an alternative translation table, i.e.when switching to another base language table by means of the [lnb~...] code, please refer to the relevant topic and available codes for that table.
[ab] is equivalent to [g2]
[bline] -- ignored.
[bsfe] can be used to end the name of a special math function (see [bsfs] below).
[bsfs] can be used to begin the name of a special math function, in the case of uncommon functions that are not directly recognized (most are recognized). For example, [bsfs]tr[bsfe](x) would cause the "tr" in "tr(x)" to be treated as a function name rather than the product of t and r.
[cap-invert] inverts the normal default case of letters in computer notation (BCN), i.e.changes the default to uppercase since the normal default is lowercase. Note that this is the opposite effect that this control had in the earlier British table, reflecting a change in BCN itself.
[cap-normal] restore the normal default case of letters in computer notation (BCN) to lowercase. (Note that this is the opposite effect that this control had in the earlier British table, reflecting a change in BCN itself.)
[caplv1] starts suppressing the indication of capital letters, except in "technical notation" (mathematics between [ts] and [te]commands) and in computer notation (between [cb...] and [tx...]commands).
[caplv3] restores the indication of capital letters everywhere, including literary text. This is the normal mode for this table.
[e] -- presently ignored.
[ecane] -- presently ignored.
[ecans] -- presently ignored.
[g1l] switches to "grade 1" (uncontracted) braille and "locks" that setting.
[g1u] undoes the "locking" effect of a prior [g1l], while leaving the contraction grade as "grade 1" (uncontracted) braille.
[g2] switches to "grade 2" (contracted) braille (which is the normal mode for this table).
[g2l] switches to "grade 2" (contracted) braille and "locks" that setting.
[g2u] undoes the "locking" effect of a prior [g2l], while leaving the contraction grade as "grade 2" (contracted) braille.
[in] is equivalent to [g1]
[ixrtd0] -- is a special variant form of [ixrtd], to force "simple" treatment of the indexed root delimiter (no brackets).
[ixrte0] -- is a special variant form of [ixrte], to force "simple" treatment of the indexed root end (no brackets).
[lnb~...] (for switching to another base [primary] language table)
[lng~...] (see "Secondary Languages Supported," above)
[sqrte0] is a special variant form of [sqrte], to force "simple" treatment (no brackets) at a square root end.
[sqrts0] is a special variant form of [sqrts], to force "simple" treatment (no brackets) at a square root start.
[tce] -- is allowed but not necessary (ignored).
[tcs] -- is allowed but not necessary (ignored).
[te] cancels the effect of [ts], restoring normal text mode.
[ts] initiates "technical notation," i.e."math mode".
The table is designed to work with the following groups of characters:
All ASCII printable characters
Accented characters and punctuation marks typical of French, German, Italian, Spanish, and Portuguese
British pound, Japanese yen, and other miscellaneous signs (DUSCI pages D+ec..., D+f5...)
Mathematical signs, shapes, etc. (DUSCI pages D+df..., D+e2..., D+f0..., D+f1...)
The above is a general guide only (see "General Notes" section at the beginning of this document).
by John Lorimer (revised by Claire Wilson, 2017).
Because three letters are not introduced until Book 7 (j, q, z), but all other letters have been learned by the end of Book 4, this would have to be the first Duxbury level, with the three missing letters taught specially if they occur. So, the Duxbury levels would look like this:
(note: letters j, q and z may occur which are not formally taught until Book 7)
Pre-braille and tracking skills
The alphabet (j, q and z not formally introduced, but may crop up)
Wordsigns: but, can, do, every, from, go, have, knowledge, like, more, not, people, rather, so, that, us, very, will, it, you, and, of, the, in, into, was, in
Contractions: and, of, the, ed, in
Punctuation: full stop, question mark, exclamation mark, comma
Other signs: capital letter sign (dot 6)
Contractions: er, ing
Shortforms: could, good, would
Contractions: st, ar, en, ea
Wordsigns: still, enough
Composite signs: one, time, there, had
Shortforms: about, after, again
Letters: j, q, z
Wordsigns: which, his, just, quite, as, were
Contractions: wh, ow
5. after Book 8
Contractions: gh, sh
Shortforms: him, said
Punctuation: quotation (speech) marks, hyphen
Wordsigns: out, this
Contractions: ou, th
Composite signs: mother, father, some
Shortforms: across, perhaps
Wordsigns: child, for, with, be
Contractions: ch, com, for, with, be, ble
Composite signs: day, where, -ound, -less
Shortforms: against, quick
Other signs: numeral sign, decimal point (dot 2), mathematical comma (dot 3), pound sign (dots 1-2-3)
Contractions: bb, cc, dd, ff, gg, dis
Composite signs: their, word, these, -ong, -ally, -ful, -ment
Composite signs: here, know, ought, right, ever, through, work
Shortforms: friend, must, your, today, tomorrow, tonight, afternoon, much, such, herself, himself, myself, yourself, above, before, below, beneath, should
Other signs: italic sign, double italic sign, italic closure sign
Composite signs: -ance, part, name, young, -tion, -ness, -ount
Shortforms: because, behind, beside, between, beyond, children, great, its, little, afterwards, almost, always, first, together
By the end of Book 14, the cmplete contracted braille code should be familiar (see exceptions below - which would have to be explained if context did not make the meanings apparent)
Composite signs: many, world, those, -ation, question, under, upon, -ence, -ity, -sion
Shortforms: also, already, blind, braille, letter, paid, receive, receiving, themselves, either, neither, immediate, necessary
Other signs: braille letter sign (dots 5-6)
The following rarely used signs have not been taught in Braille in Easy Steps. The pupil is warned at the end of Book 14 that they may encounter some of these unfamiliar signs in their braille reading, and a list is given.
Composite signs: lord, character, cannot, spirit, whose
Shortforms: according, altogether, conceive, conceiving, deceive, deceiving, declare, declaring, itself, o'clock, oneself, ourselves, perceive, perceiving, rejoice, rejoicing, thyself, yourselves
Punctuation: slash, square brackets, inner quotes
Mathematical signs: plus, minus, multiplication sign, division sign, equals, per centage sign, fractions in braille, separation sign
Other signs: bullet point sign (dots 4-5-6, dots 2-5-6), asterisk (dots 3-5 twice), ampersand (dot 4, 1-2-3-4-6), accented letter sign (dot 4), Euro sign (dot 4, e)
The "select contractions" step series is based upon the "Fingerprint" course originally developed in 1993 by the late Nigel Berry, Lecturer in Braille at the Royal National College for the Blind, Hereford, UK, and now published by the RNIB. The contractions are introduced in the following units:
Unit 1: (equivalent to grade 1)
Unit 4: as, but, can, do, every, from, go, have, it, just, knowledge, like, more, not, people, quite, rather, so, that, us, very, will, you
Unit 5: about, above, according, across, and, after, afterward, afternoon, again, against, st, still
Unit 6: almost, already, also, although, altogether, always, th, this, was
Unit 7: be, because, before, behind, below, beneath, beside, between, beyond, were
Unit 8: ch, child, children, could, either, first, friend, good, great, him, neither, sh, shall, should, would
Unit 9: ar, er, immediate, its, letter, little, much, must, necessary, o'clock, paid, perhaps, said, such
Unit 10: blind, braille, ing, quick, the, today, to-day, together, tomorrow, tonight, to-night, your
Unit 11: ble, gh, of, wh, which, with
Unit 12: ed, for, ou, out, ow
Unit 13: by, enough, his, in (as word sign only), into, to
Unit 14: cannot, had, many, spirit, their, these, those, upon, whose, word, world
Unit 15: bb, cc, com, con, dd, dis, ea, en, ff, gg, in (general use)
Unit 16: character, day, ever, father, here, know, lord, mother, name, one, ought, part, question, right, some, there, through, time, under, where, work, young
Unit 17: ally, ance, ation, ence, ful, ity, less, ment, ness, ong, ound, ount, sion, tion
Unit 18 (full grade 2 EXCEPT that the letter sign is not used): conceive, conceiving, deceive, deceiving, declare, declaring, herself, himself, itself, myself, oneself, ourselves, perceive, perceiving, receive, receiving, rejoice, rejoicing, themselves, thyself, yourself, yourselves
Takeoff - A second stage scheme for young learners to develop phonic skills, knowledge of braille contractions and word signs, in 12 stages TC21413.
Takeoff teachers handbook - Teachers handbook to accompany Takeoff TC21415P.
Take Off is divided into 12 levels, and a group of grade 2 braille signs is taught at each level.
From the start of the Take Off series all of the alphabet and alphabetic wordsigns with the exception of K for knowledge are used. In addition, the shortforms good and little are also used. Punctuation used from the outset are full stop, capital symbol indicator and question mark. The numeric indicator is also used as this has been previously introduced in Hands On. The following lists the signs and shortforms as they are introduced by series.
The Take off Series is available from RNIB product Code TC21413
(The above link was correct on 14th June 2017)
Nonspecific quotation marks
Grade 1 indicator (formerly the letter sign)
These tables are based primarily upon the definitive manual for British literary braille usage, originally "British Braille--A Restatement of Standard English Braille," a publication of the Braille Authority of the United Kingdom (BAUK). The mathematics portions are based upon "Braille Mathematics Notation" (1989), also a BAUK publication.
The literary portions of the tables were developed in May 1978, by adapting the then-current version of the English/American tables. The work was done by Duxbury Systems, Inc., with feedback from the Royal Institute for Deaf and Blind Children, Sydney, Australia (then the Royal New South Wales Institute for Deaf and Blind Children), who were the first users of DBT to produce braille according to British practice.
Support for the American Computer Braille Code (CBC), as specified in "Code for Computer Braille Notation" (1987), a publication of the Braille Authority of North America (BANA), was added in March 1988, at the same time that it was added to the American tables. That code has subsequently come into common use for representing computer notation in some countries that otherwise follow British codes, notably Australia, and so these British tables continued to support CBC until 2001 (see below.
Support for the British math code was developed in 1999 and added to the released DBT in late 2000.
Support for BAUK's "Braille Computer Notation" (1996) was developed in October 2001, replacing the BANA (Braille Authority of North America) Computer Braille Code that had been supported previously. (See the English/Australian tables, which still use the American computer codes and British codes otherwise.)
Starting in May 2004, these tables were split off from the "old" British tables and extensively revised to reflect changes introduced by BAUK and published in the 2004 edition of "British Braille."
(Documentation reviewed: July 2010.)