English/American Textbook Flag of the United States of America

Table Designator


This is the technical description of a DBT Translation table. If you want more general information about languages and template choices, please see the list of templates.

Initially, the language table for braille translation is determined by the selected template, and may be changed using the Document / Translation Tables menu. Using those menus does not require use of the table designator. However, to switch to a different translation table partway through a file, one must enter a DBT code and the designator for the table to switch to. For switching secondary languages within a base language table, see the [lng~X] command. For switching from one base language to another, see the [lnb~...] command.

Functional Summary

The English/American Textbook tables are essentially identical to the regular English/American tables, except that conventions defined for textbook usage in "Braille Formats," a publication of the Braille Authority of North America (BANA), are followed in preference to the general literary conventions followed in the regular table.

Braille to Print (Back-translation)

Braille-to-print translation is supported for this language. However, braille-to-print translation may not be perfect, therefore beware that errors can occur. If you find errors or have suggestions, please send both the *.dxb and *.dxp files along with an explanation to: languages@duxsys.com. Please be sure to include sample files!

ADDITIONAL Supported DBT Translation Codes

In addition to the translation codes supported in the regular English/American tables, there are two "variation" codes that control whether or not bold and italic forms of emphasis are distinguished in the braille. Note that normally this is not the way to control this -- rather, in the Document / Translation Tables menu, selecting "English/American Textbook (Distinct Emphases)" on the one hand or "English/American Textbook" on the other causes the emphasis indications to be distinguished or not, as one would expect. If the choice is to apply to the whole file, there is no reason to use any other means. However, if one needs to have the forms of emphasis distinguished in some parts of a file and not in others, these codes would be useful. In that case one should choose "Distinct Emphases" and use these codes as needed:

[vrn~sdbold] suppresses distinct "bold" indication until further notice (i.e. bold is treated the same as italic)

[vrn] reverts to the normal mode where bold is distinguished from italic

References, History and Credits

Thanks to Tom Keith of the Canadian National Institute for the Blind for preparing a list of the differences between literary and textbook conventions.

(Documentation reviewed: July 2010.)