English (BANA Pre-UEB Textbook DE) - BANA Format Flag of the United States of America

This DBT template is designed to produce material written in the English language. It uses the Pre-UEB BANA translation and formatting rules for textbooks using defined emphasis. (Note: This standard has been replaced by UEB.)

Translation table: English/American Textbook DE (distinct emphases), i.e. bold and italic are normally distinguished.

Click here for details on the DBT translator used by English (BANA Pre-UEB Textbook DE) - BANA.

Page number positions: Typical for BANA textbooks, i.e. print page number in upper right, braille page number in lower right.

Style library: Designed to conform to BANA terminology (in the "Braille Formats" guideline document) and to work well with the "BANA" template for Microsoft Word. For more detailed information, see Word Template BANA Braille.

This link tells how to make this template your default selection.

Multiple Templates for English

The English language has multiple DBT Templates.

Unified English Braille (UEB) is now standard in all English speaking countries. Accordingly, the "English (UEB)" templates all use the UEB braille translator. They differ with respect to math translation and/or formatting, i.e. different DBT Templates may contain different DBT styles, and the effects of the styles may differ. All UEB Templates use UEB math translation unless the template name contains the word Nemeth.

The acronym, BANA, stands for the Braille Authority of North America. The DBT BANA templates are helpful if you are in the United States or Canada and trying to meet exacting standards for textbook production. The template English (UEB) - BANA uses UEB text and UEB math translation. The template English (UEB) - BANA with Nemeth uses UEB text translation along with Nemeth Code for math and technical notation.

DBT still includes the templates for producing braille in the codes used before the introduction of UEB braille.

Here is the list of the older DBT Templates previously used in the United States and Canada:

Here is the list of the older DBT Templates previously used in the United Kingdom:

Meeting Exacting Standards

For users in the United States and Canada, the BANA DBT templates are used to meet exacting formatting standards. Frequently, braille transcribers prepare the text in Microsoft Word. Usually, those files use a BANA Word Template. Click here to learn more about the Word template.

For users in the United Kingdom, the recommended DBT template is English (UEB) - UK formatting. This DBT template can also import Word documents that use the "BANA Word template".

Math Issues in English

As of 2016, UEB has been adopted throughout the English-speaking world. In the United States (and only in the United States), BANA has allowed the widespread use of Nemeth Code for technical notation.The tools in the Duxbury Braille Translator for producing UEB according to BANA standards allow you to choose Nemeth Code or UEB math for technical notation. Your concerns as a transcriber differ depending on which you are using. When mixing Nemeth code with UEB text you need to attend to the transitions between passages of UEB and Nemeth code. There are DBT styles designed to manage these transitions: math, math-TextInMath, and OneWordBridge. You will find these styles, defined appropriately, in many DBT templates, but they are particularly important in the "English (UEB) - BANA with Nemeth" template where they produce the required transitions.

The rules of UEB math allow some flexibility with respect to spacing around signs of comparison, like the equals sign, and signs of operation, like the plus or minus signs. Most users of UEB use spaces around signs of comparison. Signs of operation are usually not spaced, though some braille jurisdictions choose otherwise, as the case requires, to meet the educational needs of some readers, etc. The UEB translator does not automatically add spaces for either situation. However, in Global Settings - Import Options, there is a checkbox for adding spaces around signs of comparison when importing files with math. This option applies both for importing Word documents with MathType and for importing LaTeX files.

Contracted Braille

This language is usually produced in contracted braille. This means that words are not produced in braille on a one-for-one basis: there are abbreviations or contractions in the text. If you have questions about producing correct braille, please contact a member of your local braille authority.

Sometimes, you may want to produce uncontracted braille. This is easy to do with DBT. Before translation into braille, go to the top of the document in DBT, and issue the Grade 1 command (Alt-1). When you translate into braille, the braille will be uncontracted.

Sample Microsoft Word file

Click here for instructions and the complete list of language sample files in Word format.

Click here For a sample Word file in this language

E-mail languages@duxsys.com for suggestions on improving DBT braille translators (or requesting a translator for a new language).

E-mail support@duxsys.com for software support issues related to Duxbury DBT.

Click here to select a different DBT Template.